JUDGES שופטים

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Original Bible FAQ

We discovered that the original Bible (Hebrew) was created by GOD, since it is encoded with messaging to humanity on 4 different levels. The original Bible has remained unaltered: 1,197,000 million Hebrew letters, 305,490 words, 23,206 verses, 929 chapters, in 39 books. Each of the 22 Hebrew letters is coded with two unique numbers between 1 and 510. As a result, each word or verse, is coded with meaning. The original Bible is the global source for 724 human-mistranslated books that lack the code, such as KJV.
Each of the 22 Biblical Hebrew letters is coded with two unique numbers between 1 to 510. Hence, each word in the original Bible is coded with a numerical value and a meaning. The patented code2GOD system comprises 32 mathematical methods that decode GOD’s messaging to humanity from the original Bible. It was invented by Don Karl Juravin. The findings provide answers to life’s most sought-after questions such as: “What is our purpose in life?”, “What is after death?” or, “How to maximize life?”

We have scientifically determined that words and verses in the original Bible are coded with social and scientific information that are more advanced than today’s science. As such, it can’t be a document created by a mere human in a cave. Therefore, the original Bible was created by a super-intelligent entity named in the original Bible as “GOD אלהים” and “YHWH יהוה” (known as Lord). Only the “GOD” entity can describe the genesis period with the encoded mathematical formulas.

Logically, believers who think that the original Bible was created by humans, assembled over time, are praying on a history book and guiding their lives based on an archeology book. Logically, if you believe that GOD created the universe, GOD can also make the Bible appear without the need for “inspiring human writers” to write it.

While the original Bible was created by GOD and is encoded with messaging to humanity on four different levels, any human translation becomes merely a “story of the Bible” written based on a human understanding and interpretation of the complex, coded original Hebrew Bible. Since only the Hebrew letters, words, and parables are embedded with the code, any translation will lose any divine messaging and become merely a story, as understood by a mere human.

Can a human interpretation, or mistranslated book, like KJV, be really holy? Is that the Word Of GOD or the word of another man?

GOD (Elohim אלהים coded 86) is not necessarily the same as Lord (YHWH יהוה coded 26). While GOD is a classification (like saying human, animal, or plant), YHWH is the name of the entity. The YHWH name is the combination of the words: past (היה), present (הווה), and future (יהיה).
We can scientifically determine, with the highest certainty, that YHWH is the creator of:

  • The 22 Hebrew letters
  • The Hebrew language, and
  • The original Bible

It is highly likely that YHWH brought into existence earth and life forms. It is likely that YHWH was brought the universe into existence. There is also a high probability that GOD is directly or indirectly, responsible for our daily lives, events, and what humans consider to be random, unknown, uncertain, or simply, luck.
We are researching the scientific difference between GOD and YHWH. For now, we assume the term “GOD,” which can be anything and everything, from a particle to the entire nature, or the universe.

Letters: 1,197,000; Words: 305,490; Verses: 23,206; Chapters: 929; Books: 39

code2CODE value: 78,091,262

Shortest verse: 9 letters in 1 Chronicles 1:1
אדם שת אנוש Adam, Sheth, Enosh,

Longest verse: 193 letters in Esther 8:9
ויקראו ספרי המלך בעת ההיא בחדש השלישי הוא חדש סיון בשלושה ועשרים בו ויכתב ככל אשר צוה מרדכי אל היהודים ואל האחשדרפנים והפחות ושרי המדינות אשר מהדו ועד כוש שבע ועשרים ומאה מדינה מדינה ומדינה ככתבה ועם ועם כלשנו ואל היהודים ככתבם וכלשונם
Then were the king’s scribes called at that time in the third month, that [is], the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth [day] thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which [are] from India unto Ethiopia, an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.

The 305,490 Biblical letter distribution: 

א95,683 • ב65,215 • ג10,080 • ד32,370 • ה101,964 • ו129,592 • ז9,099 • ח27,598 • ט6,310 • י137,842 • כ47,469 • ל88,302 • מ98,929 • נ55,093 • ס7,635 • ע44,811 • פ18,284 • צ14,977 • ק16,278 • ר68,065 • ש58,198 • ת63,206

א7.99% • ב5.45% • ג0.84% • ד2.70% • ה8.52% • ו10.83% • ז0.76% • ח2.31% • ט0.53% • י11.52% • כ3.97% • ל7.38% • מ8.26% • נ4.60% • ס0.64% • ע3.74% • פ1.53% • צ1.25% • ק1.36% • ר5.69% • ש4.86% • ת5.28%

1 Genesis בראשית Bereshit • 2 Exodus שמות Shmot • 3 Leviticus ויקרא VaYekra • 4 Numbers במדבר BaMidbar • 5 Deuteronomy דברים Dvarim • 6 Joshua  יהושע Yehoshua• 7 Judges שופטים Shoftim • 8 Samuel 1 שמואל Shmuel • 9 Samuel 2 שמואל Shmuel • 10 Kings 1 מלכים Melachim • 11 Kings 2 מלכים Melachim • 12 Isaiah ישעיהו Ishahaiah • 13 Jeremiah ירמיהו Yermiyahu • 14 Ezekiel יחזקאל Yechezkel • 15 Hosea הושע Hoshe-ah • 16 Joel יואל Yoel • 17 Amos עמוס Amos • 18 Obadiah עובדיה Ovadiah • 19 Jonah יונה Yona • 20 Micah מיכה Michah • 21 Nahum נחום Nachum • 22 Habakkuk חבקוק Chavakuk • 23 Zephaniah צפניה Zephaniah • 24 Haggai חגי Haggai • 25 Zechariah זכריה Zechariah • 26 Malachi מלאכי Malachi • 27 Psalms תהלים Tehilim • 28 Proverbs משלי Mishlei • 29 Job איוב Eyov • 30 Song of Songs שיר השירים Shir a-shirim • 31 Ruth רות Rut • 32  Lamentations איכה Eicha •33 Ecclesiastes קהלת  Kahelet • 34 Esther אסתר Ester • 35 Daniel דניאל Daniel • 36 Ezra עזרא Ezra • 37 Nehemiah נחמיה Nehemiah • 38 Chronicles 1 דברי הימים Divrei HaYamim • 39 Chronicles 2 דברי הימים Divrei HaYamim

Judges Book Explainer Video

This video explains Judges on basic level 1 as a translated story (the 4 Bible understanding levels) with 80-90% accuracy (thanks to the BibleProject)
Play Video about Judges explainer video thumbnail

Book of Judges STATS

GOD’s messaging to humanity is mathematically encoded in each word and verse within the original Bible. Can you find God’s messaging in the 39 books’ stats?
  • Words: 9,885 (3.236% of Word Of God of total 305,490 words)
  • Letters: 38,944 (3.253% of Word Of God of total 1,197,000 letters)
  • Verses: 618 (2.663% of Word Of God of total 23,206 verses)
  • code2GOD value: 2,489,077 of 78,091,262 

Shortest verse: 18 letters in Judges 10:5וימת יאיר ויקבר בקמוןAnd Jair died, and was buried in Camon.

Longest verse: 135 letters in Judges 10:6ויספו בני ישראל לעשות הרע בעיני יהוה ויעבדו את הבעלים ואת העשתרות ואת אלהי ארם ואת אלהי צידון ואת אלהי מואב ואת אלהי בני עמון ואת אלהי פלשתים ויעזבו את יהוה ולא עבדוהוAnd the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.

  • Start word: ויהי
  • Last word: יעשה
  • Middle letter: In position 19472 is ו, in position 19473 is הJudges 10:16
  • Middle word: In position 4943 is יושיעוJudges 10:14
The original Bible was created using the 22 Hebrew letters. See Bible FAQ.
  • א3389 ב2106 ג379 ד902 ה3133 ו4466 ז275 ח843 ט139 י4867 כ1222 ל2937 מ3186 נ1871 ס260 ע1491 פ588 צ357 ק468 ר2170 ש1958 ת1937
  • 4,867 י4,466 ו3,389 א3,186 מ3,133 ה2,937 ל2,170 ר2,106 ב1,958 ש1,937 ת1,871 נ1,491 ע1,222 כ902 ד843 ח588 פ468 ק379 ג357 צ275 ז260 ס139 ט
  • 12.50% י11.47% ו8.70% א8.18% מ8.04% ה7.54% ל5.57% ר5.41% ב5.03% ש4.97% ת4.80% נ3.83% ע3.14% כ2.32% ד2.16% ח1.51% פ1.20% ק0.97% ג0.92% צ0.71% ז0.67% ס0.36% ט

Judges Book FAQ

Academic studies (Britannica) of the translated book of Judges. Doesn’t replace the scientific discoveries of code2GOD.

The book of Judges tells the story of charismatic leaders (the Judges) who delivered Israel from a succession of foreign dominations after their conquest of Canaan, the Promised Land.

The introduction is an account of the conquest of Canaan (1:1–2:5) and characterization of the period of the judges (2:6–3:6). The main body of the book consists of narratives about the judges. The book concludes with supplements about the migration of the tribe of Dan to the north (chapters 17–18) and about the sins of the Benjaminites (chapters 19–21).

The main text gives accounts of six major judges and their struggles against the oppressive kings of surrounding nations, as well as the story of Abimelech, an Israelite leader (a judge (shofet) in the sense of “chieftain”) who oppresses his own people. The cyclical pattern set out in the prologue is readily apparent at the beginning, but as the stories progress it begins to disintegrate, mirroring the disintegration of the world of the Israelites. Although some scholars consider the stories not to be presented in chronological order, the judges in the order in which they appear in the text are:


There are also brief glosses on six minor judges: Shamgar (Judges 3:31; after Ehud), Tola and Jair (10:1–5), Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8–15; after Jephthah). Some scholars have inferred that the minor judges were actual adjudicators, whereas the major judges were leaders and did not actually make legal judgements. The only major judge described as making legal judgments is Deborah (4:4).

By the end of Judges, Yahweh’s treasures are used to make idolatrous images, the Levites (priests) become corrupt, the tribe of Dan conquers a remote village instead of the Canaanite cities, and the tribes of Israel make war on the tribe of Benjamin, their own kinsmen. The book concludes with two appendices, stories which do not feature a specific judge:

  • Micah’s Idol (Judges 17–18), how the tribe of Dan conquers its territory in the north.
  • Levite’s concubine (Judges 19–21): the gang rape of a Levite’s concubine leads to war between the Benjamites and the other Israelite tribes, after which hundreds of virgins are taken captive as wives for the decimated Benjamites.


Despite their appearance at the end of the book, certain characters (like Jonathan, the grandson of Moses) and idioms present in the epilogue show that the events therein “must have taken place… early in the period of the judges.”

The essence of Deuteronomistic theology is that Israel has entered into a covenant (a treaty, a binding agreement) with the God Yahweh, under which they agree to accept Yahweh as their God (hence the phrase “God of Israel”) and Yahweh promises them a land where they can live in peace and prosperity.

Deuteronomy contains the laws by which Israel is to live in the promised land, Joshua chronicles the conquest of Canaan, the promised land, and its allotment among the tribes, Judges describes the settlement of the land, Samuel the consolidation of the land and people under David, and Kings the destruction of kingship and loss of the land. 

The final tragedy described in Kings is the result of Israel’s failure to uphold its part of the covenant: faithfulness to Yahweh brings success, economic, military, and political, but unfaithfulness brings defeat and oppression.

This is the theme played out in Judges: the people are unfaithful to Yahweh and he, therefore, delivers them into the hands of their enemies; the people then repent and entreat Yahweh for mercy, which He sends in the form of a judge; the judge delivers the Israelites from oppression, but after a while, they fall into unfaithfulness again and the cycle is repeated.

The book is as intriguing for the themes it leaves out as for what it includes: the Ark of the Covenant, which is given so much importance in the stories of Moses and Joshua, is almost entirely missing, cooperation between the various tribes is limited, and there is no mention of a central shrine for worship and only limited reference to a High Priest of Israel (the office to which Aaron was appointed at the end of the Exodus story).

Although Judges probably had a monarchist redaction (see above), the book contains passages and themes that represent anti-monarchist views. One of the major themes of the book is Yahweh’s sovereignty and the importance of being loyal to him and his laws above all other gods and sovereigns. Indeed, the authority of the judges comes not through prominent dynasties nor through elections or appointments, but rather through the Spirit of God.

Anti-monarchist theology is most apparent toward the end of the Gideon cycle in which the Israelites beg Gideon to create a dynastic monarchy over them and Gideon refuses. The rest of Gideon’s lifetime saw peace in the land, but after Gideon’s death, his son Abimelech ruled Shechem as a Machiavellian tyrant guilty for much bloodshed (see chapters 8 and 9). However, the last few chapters of Judges (specifically, the stories of Samson, Micah, and Gibeah) highlight the violence and anarchy of decentralized rule.

Judges is remarkable for the number of female characters who “play significant roles, active and passive, in the narratives.” Rabbi Joseph Telushkin wrote, “Most of the great women in the Bible either are married to a great man or related to one.” A rare exception to this tradition is the prophetess and judge Deborah, perhaps the Bible’s greatest woman figure. Deborah stands exclusively on her own merits. The only thing we know about her personal life is the name of her husband, Lapidot.

Deborah, also spelled Debbora, prophet and heroine, who inspired the Israelites to a mighty victory over their Canaanite oppressors (the people who lived in the Promised Land, later Palestine, that Moses spoke of before its conquest by the Israelites); the “Song of Deborah” (Judg. 5), putatively composed by her, is perhaps the oldest section of the Bible and is of great importance for providing a contemporary glimpse of Israelite civilization in the 12th century BC. According to rabbinic tradition, she was a keeper of tabernacle lamps.

Biblical Bokim: The book of Judges opens with the Israelites continuing their conquest of the promised land. Their failure to obey God and destroy all the evil inhabitants soon comes back to haunt them in two ways: (1) the enemies reorganized and counterattacked, and (2) Israel turned away from God, adopting the evil and idolatrous practices of the inhabitants of the land.

The angel of the Lord appeared at Bokim to inform the Israelites that their sin and disobedience had broken their agreement with God and would result in punishment through oppression (Judges 1:1-3:11).

Biblical Jericho: The nation of Moab was one of the first to oppress Israel. Moab’s King Eglon conquered much of Israel–including the city of Jericho (“the City of Palms”)–and forced the people to pay unreasonable taxes.

The messenger chosen to deliver this tax money to King Eglon was named Ehud. But he had more than money to deliver, for he drew his hidden sword and killed the Moabite king. Ehud then escaped, only to return with an army that chased out the Moabites and freed Israel from its oppressors (Judges 3:12-31).

What happened at Biblical Hazor? After Ehud’s death, King Jabin of Hazor conquered Israel and oppressed the people for 20 years. Then Deborah became Israel’s leader. She summoned Barak to fight Commander Sisera, the leader of King Jabin’s army. Together Deborah and Barak led their army into battle against Jabin’s forces in the land between Mount Tabor and the Kishon River and conquered them (Judges 4:1-5:31).

What happened at the Biblical Hill of Moreh? After 40 years of peace, the Midianites began to harass the Israelites by destroying their flocks and crops. When the Israelites finally cried out to God, he chose Gideon, a poor and humble farmer, to be their deliverer.

After struggling with doubt and feelings of inferiority, Gideon took courage and knocked down his town’s altar to Baal, causing a great uproar among the citizens. Filled with the Spirit of God, he attacked the vast army of Midian, which was camped near the hill of Moreh. With just a handful of men he sent the enemy running away in confusion (Judges 6:1-7:25).

What happened at the Biblical Shechem? Even great leaders make mistakes. Gideon’s relations with a concubine in Shechem resulted in the birth of a son named Abimelech. Abimelech turned out to be treacherous and power hungry–stirring up the people to proclaim him king. To carry out his plan, he went so far as to kill 69 of his 70 half brothers.

Eventually some men of Shechem rebelled against Abimelech, but he gathered together an army and defeated them. His lust for power led him to ransack two other cities, but he was killed by a woman who dropped a millstone onto his head (Judges 8:28-9:57).

What happened at the Biblical Land of Ammon? Again Israel turned completely from God; so God turned from them. But when the Ammonites mobilized their army to attack, Israel threw away her idols and called upon God once again.

Jephthah, a prostitute’s son who had been run out of Israel, was asked to return and lead Israel’s forces against the enemy. After defeating the Ammonites, Jephthah became involved in a war with the tribe of Ephraim over a misunderstanding (Judges 10:1-12:15).

What happened at the Biblical Timnah? Israel’s next judge, Samson, was a miracle child promised by God to a barren couple. He was the one who would begin to free Israel from their next and most powerful oppressor, the Philistines. According to God’s command, Samson was to be a Nazirite–one who took a vow to be set apart for special service to God.

One of the stipulations of the vow was that Samson’s hair could never be cut. But when Samson grew up, he did not always take his special responsibility to God seriously. He even fell in love with a Philistine girl in Timnah and asked to marry her. Before the wedding, Samson held a party for some men in the city, using a riddle to place a bet with them. The men, however, forced Samson’s fiancee into giving the answer. Furious at being tricked, Samson paid his bet with the lives of 30 Philistines who lived in the nearby city of Ashkelon (Judges 13:1-14:20).

What happened at the Biblical Valley of Sorek? Samson killed thousands of Philistines with his incredible strength. The nation’s leaders looked for a way to stop him. They got their chance when another Philistine woman stole Samson’s heart. Her name was Delilah and she lived in the Valley of Sorek.

In exchange for a great sum of money, Delilah deceived Samson into confiding in her the secret of his strength. One night while he slept, Delilah cut off his hair. As a result, Samson fell helplessly into the hands of the enemy (Judges 15:1-16:20).

What happened at the Biblical Gaza? Samson was blinded and led captive to a prison in Gaza. There his hair began to grow again. After a while, the Philistines held a great festival to celebrate Samson’s imprisonment and to humiliate him before the crowds.

When he was brought out as entertainment, he literally brought down the house when he pushed on the pillars of the banquet hall and killed the thousands trapped inside. The prophecy that he would begin to free Israel from the Philistines had come true (Judges 16:21-31).

What happened at the Biblical Hill Country of Ephraim? In the hill country of Ephraim lived a man named Micah. Micah hired his own priest to perform priestly duties in the shrine which housed his collection of idols. He thought he was pleasing God with all his religiosity! Like many of the Israelites, Micah assumed that his own opinions of what was right would agree with God’s (Judges 17:1-13).

What happened at the Biblical Dan? The tribe of Dan migrated north in order to find new territory. They sent spies ahead of them to scout out the land. One night the spies stopped at Micah’s home. Looking for some assurance of victory, the spies stole Micah’s idols and priest.

Rejoining the tribe, they came upon the city of Laish and slaughtered the unarmed and innocent citizens, renaming the conquered city Dan. Micah’s idols were then set up in the city and became the focal point of the tribe’s worship for many years (Judges 18:1-31).

What happened at the Biblical Gibeah? The extent to which many people had fallen away from God became clear in Gibeah, a village in the territory of Benjamin. A man and his concubine were traveling north toward the hill country of Ephraim. They stopped for the night in Gibeah, thinking they would be safe. But some perverts in the city gathered around the home where they were staying and demanded that the man come out to have sexual relations with them.

Instead the man and his host pushed the concubine out the door. She was raped and abused all night. When the man found her lifeless body the next morning, he cut it into 12 pieces and sent the parts to each tribe of Israel. This tragic event demonstrated that the nation had sunk to its lowest spiritual level (Judges 19:1-30).

What happened at the Biblical Mizpah? The leaders of Israel came to Mizpah to decide how to punish the wicked men from the city of Gibeah. When the city leaders refused to turn the criminals over, the whole nation of Israel took vengeance upon both Gibeah and the tribe of Benjamin where the city was located.

When the battle ended the entire tribe had been destroyed except for a handful of men who took refuge in the hills. Israel had become morally depraved. The stage was now set for much-needed spiritual renewal that would come under the prophet Samuel (Judges 20:1-21:25).

Judges 2:16-19 – “Then the LORD raised up judges, who saved them out of the hands of these raiders. Yet they would not listen to their judges but prostituted themselves to other gods and worshiped them. Unlike their fathers, they quickly turned from the way in which their fathers had walked, the way of obedience to the LORD’s commands.”

“Whenever the LORD raised up a judge for them, he was with the judge and saved them out of the hands of their enemies as long as the judge lived; for the LORD had compassion on them as they groaned under those who oppressed and afflicted them. But when the judge died, the people returned to ways even more corrupt than those of their fathers, following other gods and serving and worshiping them. They refused to give up their evil practices and stubborn ways.”

Judges 3:15 – “Again the Israelites cried out to the Lord, and he gave them a deliverer—Ehud, a left-handed man, the son of Gera the Benjamite. The Israelites sent him with tribute to Eglon king of Moab.”

Judges 10:15 – “But the Israelites said to the LORD, ‘We have sinned. Do with us whatever you think best, but please rescue us now.’”

Judges 11:3 – “So Jephthah fled from his brothers and settled in the land of Tob, where a gang of scoundrels gathered around him and followed him.”

Judges 21:25 – “In those days Israel had no king; everyone did as he saw fit.”

Recurring throughout the book is the stereotyped formula: “The people of Israel did what was evil in the sight of the Lord…and he sold them into the hand of….” After each period of subjection, the historian introduces another formula: “But when the people of Israel cried to the Lord, the Lord raised up a deliverer for the people.”

Clearly, the historian schematized the accounts of the judges according to an apostasy–deliverance pattern. This arrangement of historical materials was designed to influence a course of action for the deliverance of the Israelites held captive in Babylonia. In addition to the apostasy–deliverance schema, the historian takes the history of individual tribes and gives an “all Israel” scope.

This technique likewise reflects the book’s exilic perspective, for the deliverance of all Israel, he believes, is possible if the people return to their worship of Yahweh.

Babylonia is an ancient cultural region occupying southeastern Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (modern southern Iraq from around Baghdad to the Persian Gulf). Because the city of Babylon was the capital of this area for so many centuries, the term Babylonia has come to refer to the entire culture that developed in the area from the time it was first settled, about 4000 BCE. Before Babylon’s rise to political prominence (c. 1850 BCE), however, the area was divided into two countries: Sumer in the southeast and Akkad in the northwest.

The history of Sumer and Akkad is one of constant warfare. The Sumerian city-states fought one another for the control of the region and rendered it vulnerable to invasion from Akkad and from its neighbor to the east, Elam. Despite the series of political crises that marked their history, however, Sumer and Akkad developed rich cultures.

The Sumerians were responsible for the first system of writing, cuneiform; the earliest known codes of law; the development of the city-state; the invention of the potter’s wheel, the sailboat, and the seed plow; and the creation of literary, musical, and architectural forms that influenced all of Western civilization.

This cultural heritage was adopted by the Sumerians’ and Akkadians’ successors, the Amorites, a western Semitic tribe that had conquered all of Mesopotamia by about 1900 BCE. Under the rule of the Amorites, which lasted until about 1600 BCE, Babylon became the political and commercial centre of the Tigris-Euphrates area, and Babylonia became a great empire, encompassing all of southern Mesopotamia and part of Assyria to the north.

The ruler largely responsible for this rise to power was Hammurabi (c. 1792–1750 BCE), the sixth king of the 1st dynasty of Babylon, who forged coalitions between the separate city-states, promoted science and scholarship, and promulgated his famous code of law.

After Hammurabi’s death, the Babylonian empire declined until 1595 BCE, when the Hittite invader Mursil I unseated the Babylonian king Samsuditana, allowing the Kassites from the mountains east of Babylonia to assume power and establish a dynasty that lasted 400 years.

During the last few centuries of Kassite rule, religion and literature flourished in Babylonia, the most important literary work of the period being the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian epic of creation. During this same time, however, Assyria broke away from Babylonian control and developed as an independent empire, threatening the Kassite dynasty in Babylonia and on a few occasions temporarily gaining control. Elam, too, grew powerful and ultimately conquered most of Babylonia, felling the Kassite dynasty (c. 1157 BCE).

In a series of wars, a new line of Babylonian kings, the 2nd dynasty of the city of Isin, was established. Its most outstanding member, Nebuchadrezzar I (reigned 1119–1098 BCE), defeated Elam and successfully fought off Assyrian advances for some years.

For several centuries following Nebuchadrezzar I’s rule, a three-way struggle developed among the Assyrians and Aramean and Chaldean tribesmen for control of Babylonia. From the 9th century to the fall of the Assyrian empire in the late 7th century BCE, Assyrian kings most frequently ruled over Babylonia, often appointing sub-kings to administer the government. The last ruling Assyrian king was Ashurbanipal, who fought a civil war against his brother, the sub-king in Babylon, devastating the city and its population.

Upon Ashurbanipal’s death, a Chaldean leader, Nabopolassar, made Babylon his capital and instituted the last and greatest period of Babylonian supremacy. His son Nebuchadrezzar II (reigned 605–562 BCE) conquered Syria and Palestine; he is best remembered for the destruction of Judah and Jerusalem in 587 BCE and for the ensuing Babylonian captivity of the Jews. He also revitalized Babylon, constructing the wondrous hanging gardens and rebuilding the Temple of Marduk and its accompanying ziggurat.

The Persians, under Cyrus the Great, captured Babylonia from Nebuchadrezzar’s last successor Nabonidus in 539 BCE. Thereafter, Babylonia ceased to be independent, passing eventually in 331 BCE to Alexander the Great, who planned to make Babylon the capital of his empire and who died in Nebuchadrezzar’s palace. After Alexander’s death, however, the Seleucids eventually abandoned Babylon, bringing an end to one of the greatest empires in history.

Merodach-Baladan II, (died c. 694 BC), was king of Babylonia 721–710 and for nine months in 703, who maintained Babylonian independence in the face of Assyrian military supremacy for more than a decade.

Commencing in 728 the king of Assyria also officially held the title of king of Babylonia. During that time Merodach-Baladan, a member of the Yakin tribe, was a district ruler in Chaldea.

During the unrest surrounding the accession of Sargon II of Assyria in 722, Merodach-Baladan entered Babylon and claimed the Babylonian throne, which had belonged to his forebear Eriba-Marduk. An attack by the Elamites two years later so weakened the Assyrians—though both sides claimed victory—that, as king of Babylonia, Merodach-Baladan remained unmolested by Assyria for the next 10 years.

Sargon’s inscriptions portray Merodach-Baladan as a usurper who oppressed Babylonia and relied on Elamite military power. On the other hand, Merodach-Baladan claimed to be the legitimate heir who had driven the Assyrians from Babylonia. Contemporary Babylonian documents indicate that temples were repaired, irrigation projects were carried out, and life was normal during his reign.

According to Assyrian accounts, Sargon marched south against Babylonia in 710. After defeating the Elamites and Merodach-Baladan’s other allies, he turned toward Babylon. Merodach-Baladan fled, and the leading citizens of Babylon brought Sargon unopposed into the city, where he officially became king of Babylonia. The next year Sargon captured and destroyed Merodach-Baladan’s capital, Dur-Yakin.

Judges chapter 1: After Joshua’s death, the Israelites ask the Lord who should go up first to fight the Canaanites. Judah was the first tribe selected. The tribe of Simeon helps the tribe of Judah drive enemies off the land. Ephraim and Manasseh attempt to clear their land as well but do not wipe out all the former inhabitants. The other tribes are unable to drive all the Canaanites off their allotted inheritance.

Judges chapter 2: The Lord confronts the Israelites about not destroying the former inhabitants including their false idols. The Lord declares that he will no longer help the Israelites in their quest to take all of the Promised Land. The Lord hands the Israelites over to raiders and sends judges to defend the people against the raiders.

Judges chapter 3: A list of nations that remained because the Israelites refused to drive them out. The Lord delivers the Israelites over to Aram Naharaim who rules over Israel for eight years. The Lord chooses Caleb’s brother Othniel as first judge to deliver the Israelites from the outside raiders.

The Israelites do evil again and God subjects them to Eglon the Moabite king. Ehud from the tribe of Benjamin is chosen to lead the Israelites out of bondage to Moab. Shamgar replaces Ehud as judge over Israel.

Judges chapter 4: After Ehud died, the Israelites did evil again. The Lord gives them over to Jabin, king of Canaan. God raises up Deborah and Barak to lead the Israelites out of the hand of Jabin. A woman named Jael kills the Sisera, the Canaanite army commander.

Judges chapters 5, 6, and 7: In Judges 5 there is the Song of Deborah. Then in Judges 6, the people of Israel do evil again and the Lord gives them over to a band of Midianites. Gideon is chosen to lead the people out of bondage to the Midianites. Gideon pulls down an Asherah pole and builds an altar to the Lord. Finally, in Judges 7, Gideon defeats the Midianites with only 300 men.

Judges chapter 8: Gideon is criticized by the Ephramites for not calling them to help fight the Midianites. The men of Succoth refuse to give food to Gideon and his fighting men. Gideon captures two Midianite leaders and executes them. Gideon makes an ephod for himself. Gideon dies.

Judges chapter 9: Abimelech, son of one of Gideon’s concubines, kills his other brothers and governs over Israel for three years. Abimelech has a problem with the people of Shechem who choose a man named Gaal to lead them. Zebul the governor of Shechem sides with Abimelech. Abimelech defeats Gaal and the people of Shechem. A woman drops a millstone on Abimelech’s head and he dies.

Judges chapter 10: Tola replaces Abimelech as judge of Israel; Jair replaces Tola; Israelites do evil again by serving the gods of other peoples; god becomes angry with the Israelites and gives them over to the Ammonites and Philistines. The Israelites cry out to God and confess their sins of idol worship. The Israelites get rid of their idols and prepare to fight the Ammonites.

Judges chapter 11: Jephthah the Gileadite was a mighty warrior. Jephthah was rejected by his brothers and sent away. The Gileadites call Jepthah back to rescue them from the Ammonites. Jephthah sends a letter to the king of the Ammonites concerning Israel’s right to possess the land east of the Jordan.

Jephthah makes a hasty vow to secure the Lord’s favor in battle. The Lord gives the Ammonites over to Jephthah and his army. In accordance with his hasty vow. Jephthah is forced to sacrifice his only daughter to the Lord.

Judges chapter 12: The men of Ephraim fight against Jephthah and the Gileadites for not calling on them to help with the battle against the Ammonites. Ibzan, Elon, and Abden follow Jephthah as judge over Israel.

Judges chapter 13: An angel appears to a Danite woman and tells her she will have a special child who is to be a Nazirite. The angel appears again to her husband Manoah and gives them instructions about how to rear the boy. The woman gives birth to the special son and names him Samson.

Judges chapter 14: Samson demands that his parents get him Timnah , a young Philistine, to be his bride. Samson rescues his parents from a lion which he tore apart with his bare hands. Samson eats honey he found inside the carcass of the lion. Samson is given 30 companions to whom he attempts to trick with a riddle.

Samson promises them he will give each one a new set of clothes for solving the riddle. Timnah nags Samson for seven days until he tells her the riddle. Samson kills 30 men and gives their clothes to his 30 companions. Burning with anger, Samson left his new wife with her father and her father gave her to Samson’s friend.

Judges chapter 15: Samson goes to Timnah’s home to retrieve her, but her father blocks him from seeing her. Samson uses foxes to burn the Philistines’ crops. The Philistines burn Timnah, her father, and his house for Samson’s offense. Samson attacked the Philistines and slaughtered them. Samson led Israel for 20 years.

Judges chapter 16: Samson takes another Philistine woman Delilah as his wife. Delilah nags Samson into revealing the secret to his strength. Samson is captured by the Philistines. The Lord helps Samson defeat the Philistines one last time by giving him strength to destroy the Philistine temple.

Judges chapter 17: A man named Micah living in the hill country of Ephraim makes a carved idol out of silver as well as a shrine and an ephod. Micah hires a Levite from Benjamin to be priest in his shrine.

Judges chapter 18: The Tribe of Danites search for a place to settle down and send five warriors to spy out the land and explore it; The five Danites recognize the young Levite working for Micah and ask him to inquire of the Lord for them.

The five warriors discover Laish and send it to the Danite clan. On the way to Laish, the five warriors steal the carved image, the ephod and take the young Levite with them. The Danites conquer Laish and set up idols for their gods.

Judges chapter 19: A Levite from the Ephraim hill country took a concubine from Bethlehem; the concubine ran away to her father’s home and the Levite retrieved her. On their way back home, the Levite and his concubine stop in Gibeah in the land of Benjamin where they stayed with an old man.

Wicked men came to the old man’s house and demanded to have sex with the Levite. The Levite gave them his concubine and they raped her all night until she died. The Levite took her to his home in the hill country of Ephraim, cut her body up with a knife, and sent the body parts in all areas of Israel as a witness against what the Benjamites had done.

The main events in Judges 20 and 21: In Judges 20, the Israelites attack and slaughter the Benjamite men for their wickedness and evil deeds. Then in Judges 21, wives of the Benjamites get new husbands. In those days, everyone did what was right in their own eyes.


Original Bible Vs. 14 Human Translations